ZETDC’s 350 000 household connection deficit. What if…?

Edwin Chabuka Avatar

Imagine this. Right now there are 350 000 households in Zimbabwe that have not yet been connected to the grid. Me included. I read this headline and I thought, wait a minute. What if ZESA as an enterprise could capitalize on this problem? What if the solution to this problem could be a win for everybody? Power As A Service.

About a year ago we had a podcast with the CEO of Distributed Power Africa and 2 things in that podcast struck me. First, there is a reality that as a consumer you’re not really interested in where the power comes from. Electricity is just electricity. The second point is that the most reliable and most ideal electricity situation is a mix of energy sources.

Every roof as a source of power

The average area of a household roof is 100 square meters. 60% of such a roof area is enough to fit 10KVA or 10000W in solar panel capacity. So in theory, the 350 000 households will be able to collectively generate 3.5MW of electricity. That is 27% of what the Harare power station is generating right now.

Now, this is a best-case scenario. Obviously, we will have some technicalities within these 350 000 homes. Some of them are flats so multiple households are under one roof. Some roofs will have complicated designs and so fitting a 10KVA solar array can be difficult but look at it this way.

For pre-built houses in brand-new developments, ZETDC can set up 10KVA solar systems for free. Then recoup the cost by selling this power to these same households the same way they do for power on the grid. Same rates even. Meaning as a customer I not only get power but it’s power that is most reliable when I need it. During the day when I am awake and productive. A good number of us are still working from home too so it’s a win.

On the side of ZETDC, they earn some revenue from the cheapest energy source around when looking at running and maintenance costs, less load on the grid which means less load shedding, and also making household roofs power generating infrastructure to add to the energy mix of the grid. And because it’s infrastructure set up on top of someone’s roof and not an installation in the middle of nowhere, it’s a more secure installation reducing costs from vandalism.

The right energy mix

There are 3.8 million homes in Zimbabwe. Let’s take just half of those and say every roof has a 10KVA solar system. That’s 190MW of free energy or about 17% of the current national supply at the time of making this video. 17% might not seem like a big number but let’s put it this way.

Zimplats, one of the biggest mining companies in Zimbabwe is planning on building a 185 MW solar farm so it can get reliable power delivery for its operations, reduce downtime and save costs. Half of the households in Zimbabwe can easily cover that. And it’s still a win because it’s energy that’s supplementing the grid with much less risk and cost.

And even if it’s an expensive investment to fit every roof with a solar system, the savings on running costs and maintenance alone are pretty big that breaking even will not take long. And the downstream effects are pretty big on the economy and here is why.


Energy is the biggest and most important resource for the industry. It does not matter whether it’s agriculture, mining, processing, or manufacturing, if there is no energy the industry cannot strive. It’s very unattractive for an investor looking to invest in industry to realize that the market they wish to invest in cannot guarantee a supply of power. And that is one of the chief reasons why very little industry is present in Zimbabwe.

To see how bad it can go, recently the Zambian Kwacha edged out the South African Rand on value against the US dollar. One of the biggest reasons is that the waves of power outages in South Africa were very frequent and of substantial duration. This had a knock-on effect on productivity. Lower productivity meant they sold and exported less but some fixed costs remained the same and there came the recipe for inflation.


Put yourself in the shoes of the retailer. You have products that you sell that require capital. You have a premise you operate from that requires rent and your power is billed in estimates. If power is unreliable and you run, say, a supermarket, you are going to have to set up redundant power solutions to ensure load shedding does not disrupt business operations.

However, this redundant power solution which in a majority of businesses right now is a diesel or petrol-powered generator, it’s added running costs on top of the ones already existing. And you are essentially paying for the same thing twice because if load shedding happens during operating hours you are still paying a monthly electricity bill plus fuel for the generator. That cost is added onto the selling price of these goods and the customer ends up paying more than they would if that unreliable power supply didn’t exist.

What I am saying is that if the cost of alternative power or backup power for this business is 10% of all the costs involved, solving that problem will mean customers save 10% on those goods. Extra income they can spend on other things which helps stretch their dollar even further.


At the moment ZPC and the government are in the middle of a drive to refurbish some thermal power stations so we can import less electricity. Until that is sorted, the short-term plan is to buy electricity from our neighboring countries. There are deals in place to buy 100MW from Zambia and another 100MW from Mozambique to supplement our power deficit. That is foreign currency leaving the country that citizens will end up paying for either through an increase in electricity tariffs or more taxes.

Half of the roofs of Zimbabwean households can meet that 200MW demand easily and save the economy millions of US dollars whilst providing a reliable power supply that costs a lot less than other available energy sources.

ZETDC also states that they are losing 9 million USD annually from vandalism and theft of electricity infrastructure. The security aspect of putting solar panels on people’s roofs gives the house owner an incentive of ensuring the security of that infrastructure because that is where their power is coming from. And as much as it might not completely eliminate the cost of damage to infrastructure, it will bring a significant reduction to that 9 million USD figure.

It’s no silver bullet but the right mix can be

Even if we were to slam solar panels on the roofs of all 3.8 million Zimbabwean homes with a 10KVA system, we would only be generating 380MW of energy which is less than a quarter of Zimbabwe’s peak energy demand of 1700MW. So it’s not going to single-handedly solve Zimbabwe’s energy crisis.

A more viable solution is one where a mix of all the energy solutions work together in harmony to ensure that energy production is sufficient, sustainable, reliable, and affordable. Sufficient enough to meet the nation’s demand. Sustainable enough that it can be a usable source for a long time. Reliable enough to deliver consistent supply with world-class uptime which should be 99.99% or no load shedding. And affordable to produce and transmit thereby making it affordable for the consumer. 

No economy can thrive without energy and until we get on top of that, the state of the economy will remain as it is. And as seen in South Africa if it gets worse, so will the economy.

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  1. Imi Vanhu Musadaro

    The logistics and costs of putting a solar system on a privately owned house are more than just connecting the said house.

    Managing and securing those individual solar installations will also be a nightmare. It’s more practical to establish a solar farm, theres plenty of land to do that. Management, security and maintenance will then be in one location.

    And, corporate property on private roofs will eventually require rental to be paid, either directly or as a subsidy. When folks are desperate they will be open to freely providing this service, but soon after their minds will change.

  2. D.K.

    ZESA will never pay you even a cent for the excess electricity from a solar setup that you inject into their system. They will only. They will subtract the total of what you used from them from the total of what you injected into their grid. If you got more units than you injected, they will make you pay for the difference. If, on the other hand, you got less units from them than what you injected into their system, do not expect any payment, you are doing it for the nation! That is how it was the last time I had information about it, they may have changed it.
    On the very interesting eye opener that all households in the whole country need less than 400 megawatts, why not have zesa or whoever guarantee this as a public service, and involve all commercial entities on how they can meet their electricity demand? Even have separate grids for households and commercial entities!

    1. D.K.

      … They will only do an offset with payment only when its in their favour. …

    2. Anonymous

      … They will only do an offset with payment only when its in their favour. …

  3. Anonymous

    Zesa already hiked their connection fee above 100% so I think they have enough funds

  4. BeIT

    The rainy season is befalling us real soon gentrumen, you shall start with your own household with a humble set-up to light up 7x bulbs, 2x laptops, 1x TV, 1x decoder/router & 2x smartphones. You shall see how incredibly easy you’d have got it when your neighbors wanna watch the Qatar WC. Before you know it you shall have your solar freezer and boom you shall appreciate solar efficiency. And then your neighborhood will be solar contagious

  5. The Empress

    Nice dream but like most dreams totally impractical
    It’s a nice dream…. But like most dreams totally impractical
    OK here’s my problem with this dream.
    Let’s just start of with the fact that this plan is reliant on the government and ZESA to wake up one day as competent entities this would require a miracle…. Yah that’s not going to happen.
    Let’s say a miracle occurred… So now let’s consider the next problem. Since this is a government/zesa project so we can’t do what the vast majority of the homeowners who have installed solar panels did.
    Which was to just slap on solar panels on to the side of the roof that got the most sunlight , whilst totally ignoring the fact that the roof and house wasn’t structurally designed with solar panels in mind. So this would require government/ZESA to set out ONE set standard house/roof design that makes the houses all look the same with the needed structural enhancements but with focus being on maximum solar power generation.
    But….. they would need these houses to be built by people using their own money, by people who scrimped, hustled and saved in order to build their dream house,good luck getting that to happen.
    Scaling up up a solution used by desparate people in order to solve a national problem sounds reasonable but real life doesn’t work that way.
    The simplest and most efficient solution which has been proven to work is to just build solar farms, they can be built to various specifications from 1 MW to 100MW and upwards. Since all the kinks have been solved just take designs that have been shown to work in similar environments and use them. The pioneers have done all the work.
    There is no need to reinvent the wheel.
    If the urge to be fancy still needs to be scratched. Build wind farms I hear they look pretty 😉

  6. M2

    Your calculations seem way out. 350,000 x 10,000W = 3,500,000,000W or 3.5GW which is more that the current total ZESA generating capacity. This would be only when the sun is shining though but it’s still a lot.

    1. Edwin Chabuka

      A lot more considering we are hovering around 1150MW

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